AIA Post-Grant Practice Rapidly Integrates Federal Circuit and Board Decisions
AIA post-grant practice has many advantages over other proceedings, but one of the great benefits of AIA post-grant practice that we have not discussed is the speed in which AIA post-grant proceedings adopt recent patent decisions from different sources. This is really an exciting and challenging feature of AIA post-grant practice that has become even more apparent in recent filings. One of the reasons that AIA proceedings are so quick to adopt changes in patent law is that the PTAB offers a panel of patent judges who are already versed in patent law, so the Board does not have a large learning curve to process new decisions from the Federal Circuit and laws from Congress. Another reason is that AIA patent trials are relatively fast-paced proceedings, which by their very nature will apply legal decisions quicker than routine district court practice. Yet another reason is that many of the changes in practical post-grant practice are being driven by the Board itself, so the Board can quickly and consistently synthesize inputs from other sources and deploy its own procedural and legal changes. The result is a petitions practice that can adapt quickly to a rapidly changing patent legal landscape.
One example of rapid integration of recent decisions is shown by a recent CBM petition filed on behalf of LinkedIn (CBM2013- 00025) that challenges claims 1-17 of U.S. Patent No. 7,856,430 (the ‘430 Patent) owned by AvMarkets, Inc. This CBM petition is a convergence of findings from the recent Federal Circuit decision in CLS Bank lnt’l v. Alice Corp. Pty. Ltd., 2013 WL 1920941, at *9 (Fed. Cir. May 10, 2013) and the recent CBM petition and trial (SAP v. Versata, CBM2012-00001). LinkedIn’s petition is notable for both what it includes and what it omits. For example, the petition includes a single challenge of patent eligibility under 35 U.S.C. § 101 akin to the ultimate patentability challenge in SAP v. Versata and incorporating the recent CLS Bank decision. For example, pages 4-5 of the LinkedIn petition borrows from the SAP v. Versata CBM:
The Board has concluded that the AlA’s definition of CBM patents should “be broadly interpreted and encompass patents claiming activities that are financial in nature, incidental to a financial activity or complementary to a financial activity.” SAP America, Inc. v. Versata Development Group, Inc., No. CBM2012- 00001, at 21-22 (P.T.A.B. January 9, 2013) (Decision regarding the Institution of Covered Business Method Review), citing 77 Fed. Reg. 157 (August 14, 2012) at 48736. In particular, the Board has held that it does “not interpret the statute as requiring the literal recitation of the terms financial products or services [and that the] term financial is an adjective that simply means relating to monetary matters.” id. at 23. “At its most basic, a financial product is an agreement between two parties stipulating movements of money or other consideration now or in the future,” and encompasses “patents [that] apply to administration of business transactions.” ld., quoting 157 Cong. Rec. S5432 (daily ed. Sept. 8 2011) (statement of Sen. Schumer).
And pages 22-23 of the LinkedIn petition also incorporates findings from CLS Bank:
Moreover, the ‘430 Patent ultimately claims nothing more and nothing less than the abstract idea of generating sales leads by putting product data in a searchable index, adding only the instruction to “apply it” in the broadest field of use imaginable-the Internet. Mayo, 132 S. Ct. at 1294. That does not suffice to make these claims patentable. The idea of cataloguing customer and product data in the field of use of”the Internet” necessarily implies putting them in the formats known to be searchable on the Internet. The claims add nothing that is not already implicit in the abstract idea. Because the steps are “as a practical matter … necessary to every practical use” of the abstract idea of making commercial data searchable on the Web, they are “not truly limiting.” CLS Bank, 2013 WL 1920941 at * 11 , citing Mayo, 132 S. Ct. at 1298 (Lourie, J. concurring); see id. at *28-*29 (Rader, J., concurring) (key inquiry is “whether the claim covers every practical application of [the] abstract idea” but even if not, ” it still will not be limited meaningfully if it . .. only … identiflies] a relevant audience, a category of use, field of use, or technological environment”). The Internet is in fact so broad an area of application, it can barely be said to limit the claim even to a field of use. CyberSource Corp. v. Retail Decisions, Inc., 620 F. Supp. 2d 1068, 1077 (N.D. Cal. 2009) (“The internet continues to exist despite the addition or subtraction of any particular piece of hardware … [T]he internet is an abstraction …. One can touch a computer or a network cable, but one cannot touch ‘the internet.”‘), aff’d, 654 F.3d 1366.
Also notable is that LinkedIn’s filing omits several things found in other CBM petitions, like a challenge based on prior art, an expert declaration offering evidence, and use of every available page (LinkedIn’s petition is only 27 pages of a possible 80 pages afforded CBM petitions). With this approach, LinkedIn keeps the cost of challenge to a minimum and reduces estoppel to the single ground asserted should the Board issue a final decision upholding the patent. Of course, the petition was recently filed on May 29, 2013, so it is too early to tell if it will be successful, but the concept of challenging a patent based on a petition with relatively few pages and no initial expert testimony is the latest adaptation of post-grant practice courtesy of the America Invents Act.